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空也上人
The Holy Priest Kūya
(903 - 972)

 

平安中期の僧。出自は未詳。 尾張国分寺で出家後、諸国を遍歴し、道路・橋梁・灌漑等の社会事業を行うとともに、 京都を中心に貴賤を問わない口称念仏の布教した。これが空也念仏である。 京都東山に六波羅蜜寺を建立。同寺に所蔵される空也上人木像は鎌倉時代の仏師・康勝の作。 [*平安期の康尚とは別。]
 隆慶一郎作『一夢庵風流記』でこの和讃がとなえらるが、この作品が原哲夫の漫画『花の慶次』の原作であることは周知 のことと思う。この漫画は最近になって、英語化されている。 [広辞苑]

Buddhist monk of the mid-Heian Era. His origins are uncertain. After becoming a priest at Owari-Country's Kokubunji, he traveled the country, undertaking social work such as the construction of roads, bridges, and irrigation facilities. He also tried to spread the way of salvation through oral prayer, which did not make distinctions between the wealthy and the poor. His chants were called "Kūya nenbutsu". Founded the Rokuharamitsuji Temple in the Higashiyama district of Kyoto. The wooden statue of Kūya preserved at the temple was sculpted later in the Kamakura Era by Kōshō [Not the sculptor by the same name from the Heian Era].
A version of the hymnal is quoted in the period novel Ichi-Mu-An Fūryūki by the late Ryū Keiichirō. It has been made into a comic book by artist Hara Tetsuo, and the English version "Keiji" was serialized by Raijin Comics.

隆慶一郎『一夢庵風流記』より /from Ryū Keiichirō's novel, Ichi-Mu-An Fūryūki

賽の河原和讃1

子供:
ichijō tsunde wa chichi no tame
一じゃう2つんでは、ちちのため、
nijō tsunde wa haha no tame
ニじゃうつんでは、ははのため、


nishi wo muite wa chichi koishi
にしをむいてはちちこひし、
higashi wo muite wa haha koishi
ひがしをむいては、ははこひし、
koishi koishi to naku koe ga
こひしこひしとなくこゑが、
midori no namida no tae mo nashi
みどり3のなみだの、たへもなし


地蔵:
nanji ga chichi wa shaba ni aru
なんぢがちちは、しゃばにある。
meido no chichi wa ore naru zo
めいどのちちは、おれなるぞ


五つ六つの子は桔梗、刈萱かるかや
女郎花おみなえし、萩の花を集め、
九つ十の子は石を集めて塚を積む。
日暮になると鬼風が吹き
荒れて、飾った花を吹散らし、
積んだ石もつきくずす。

注釈:

1 賽の河原は、幼児が死ぬと、そこで苦しみを受けるとされる、 冥途めいど三途さんずの川の河原。
「和讃」については、劉慶一郎(1923-89)の小説『一夢庵風流記』p.175に掲載された バージョンを収録した。原作者が故人となってからも、画・原哲夫、 脚本・麻生未央の手で蘇らされた漫画『花の慶次』にも、同エピソードは 再現されている。さらにいえば、劉慶一郎の『鬼麿斬人剣』にも多少 ことなるバージョンの和讃が引用されている。柳田國男『先祖の話』の 「六八章:さいの川原」にある『地蔵和讃』は、

かのみどり児の所作として/河原の石を取り集め/
一じゆ組んでは父のため/二重くんでは母のため/
三じうくんではふる里の/兄弟わが身と回向えこうして/
昼はひとりで遊べども/日も入りあひのその頃は云々

2 「いちじゃう」は一重。(前脚注の柳田國男の引用を参照)。
3 「みどり児」は、命の芽生えたばかりの、新緑のような子供としてもいいし、 年が三つくらいの児と解してもいい。いずれにせよ、物心や分別がつくか つかないかの年齢である。キリスト教では、善悪の区別のつかないうちに 神に召されると、地獄でもなく天国でもない空間(リンボ)にその魂はただよう というから、非常によく似ている。石積みの苦行をさせられるから、煉獄 (プルガトリオ)と比較してもよい。

Sainokawara Hymnal1

CHILD:
ichijō tsunde wa chichi no tame
There, I stacked one, that's for father
nijō tsunde wa haha no tame
There, I stacked two, that's for mother

nishi wo muite wa chichi koishi
I look to the west, and it's father I miss
higashi wo muite wa haha koishi
I look to the east, and it's mother I miss
koishi koishi to naku koe ga
"I miss you, I miss you" cries the voice,
midori no namida no tae mo nashi
and the green 2 young tears, ne'er to cease.

JIZŌ3:
nanji ga chichi wa shaba ni aru
Your father's stuck at home in the world of the living.
meido no chichi wa ore naru zo
In the world of departed souls, your father is me.
A child aged five or six must gather such flowers as the kikyō (balloonflower), thatching grass, ominaeshi(patrinia), and hagi(lespedeza); while child aged nine or ten must stack up stones into a tower. At nightfall, a demon find blows, whipping away the festooned flowers and knocking down the stacked stones.
Notes:

1 Sainokawahara is the river-bank of Sanzu-no-kawa (River Styx) of the underworld, where young deceased children are forced to suffer certain labors.
The particular version of the Hymnal was taken from the one used in Ryū Keiichiro(1923-89)'s historical romance Ichimu-an Fūryūki (Tales of Pizzazery about Ichimu-an the Dreamer). The episode is also recreated in the manga (comic book) "Maeda Keiji" (illust. Hara Tetsuo, script by Asou Mio), mostly created after the author passed away. A briefer variant of the hymnal is also quoted in another work by Ryu Keiichiro, Onimaro Zanjin-ken (The Man-Cutting Swordsmanship of Oni-maro the Smith). And yet another version is quoted in the anthropologist Yanagida Kunio's work, Senzo no Hanashi (Discussions about Our Forefathers), Ch. 68.

2 This part is most difficult to translate succcinctly. The line literally reads midori no namida or "green tears". However this is a reference to a specific word midori-go, which is said to mean a child whose rational thinking (funbetsu) is just sprouting so that it is the color of spring green, but also means a young child, probably originally "a child of three" (since mi is the word for three in ordinate counting.)
The point is, the child lost his life at a point when he could barely distinguish right from wrong, and like in Christian religion, has ended up in a limbo- (or purgatory-) like world by the banks of the River Styx.
3 Jizō is the guardian deity of children. There are countless Jizō statues, quite simplistic statues carved from stone found throughout Japan, on street corners, within small shrines, and along old highways.
The father is still back at the shaba, which is the Buddhist word for the world of the living, but the child now lives in the netherworld, meido, so he must make do with the Jizo god as father.


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