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Waise ヴァイゼ(みなしご石) 【素材:宝石】 【ドイツ英雄譚】
Waise [現代ドイツ語]
weise [中期高地ドイツ語]; orphanus 「孤児(みなしご)」, pupillus 「みなしごの少年」, unio [L.]
     かつてドイツ皇帝(神聖ローマ皇帝) の王冠の、正面上方に嵌め込まれていた宝石*1。ほのかにワインレッド色がかった白色であり、 かつては夜になると発光したものだが、その光芒は歳月と共に褪せたという。1550年の在庫調べの記録を最後に、 宝石は逸失した。

 王冠の本体は現存している。当初は オットー大帝 (912-973年)のためにしつらえたものであった。 金属板(?)を八枚に綴って環を作り、頭に被れるようにしてある。正面の板には、新約聖書の十二使徒を象徴する 十二の宝石が嵌められている。つまり、ヨハネの黙示録21章19-20節*2列記されるそれと、同じものだと考えられて作られていたはずだ。ちなみに、この箇所は、 口語で天国の意味に使われる「パーリー・ゲイツ」すなわち、神の都の真珠の門についても 描写しているが、十二の門それぞれが、一個の巨大な真珠でできている、と書かれている。

 ドイツ皇帝の王冠の中央の宝石は、現在ではハート型のサファイアに置き換えられているが、 かつては、ヴァイゼ(みなしご石)が嵌められていた。これはつまり、唯一無二のキリストの 象徴であったのではないだろうか。すなわち、王冠のフロントパネルは、イエスと、 逆徒イスカリオテのユダをのぞいた11使徒を象徴していたのだと推察されるのである。

 ちなみに、ドイツで「シュタイン・デア・ヴァイゼン」は、西洋錬金術のいわゆる「賢者の石」 のことなので、混同しないように。

*1 この王冠 (Reichskrone) は、今でもウィーンのホーフブルク宮殿の宝物館 (Schatzkammer) に保管されている。 王冠と 聖槍 [Heilige Lanze] その他の 宝物は、<帝国宝物(ライヘスクライノディエン)> Reichskleinodien (ライヘは帝国、クライノトは、宝石類の意) と総称されている。
参照:秋山聡「デューラーの《二皇帝像》と聖なる見世物」の<帝国王冠>。
帝国王冠といっても複数あるが、ヴァイゼ石のこめられていた当該の帝国王冠は、 リヒテンシュタインで1975〜77年に発行された切手シリーズ (スコットカタログ番号 #567-71, 617-20/ ミシェル 625/8, --, 673/6 )のデザインに使われた。 シリーズのなかには、⇒聖槍の 切手も含まれている。 一枚をのぞき、Charlemagne 2000Reichskleinodienページで 閲覧できる。

* 2 帝国王冠の後の板、つまり、かぶった人間の後頭部に接する プレートには、旧約聖書の12部族を象徴する宝石が嵌められている。これらは、ユダヤの高僧が ぶら下げる胸飾りに嵌められる十二宝石と同一である。(『出エジプト記』28章。詳述は、 アーロンの⇒《裁きの胸当〔ホシェン・ミシュパト〕》 のページを参照)。ヨハネの黙示録の十二宝石と、だいたい合致する。

§ St. Albertus Magnus

ヴァイゼ石の、外見的な特長や性質については、 アルベルトゥス・マグヌス(大アルベルトゥス) (1193?-1280年)*1 が、その著書『鉱物について』で解説している:
'Orphanus est lapis qui in corona Romani imperatoris est, neque unquam alibi visus est, propter quod etiam orphanus vocatur. Est autem colore vinosus, subtilem habens vinositatem, et hoc est sicut si candidum nivis candens seu micans penetraverit in rubeum clarum vinosum, et sit superatum ab ipso. Est autem lapis perlucidus, et traditur quod aliquando fulsit in nocte, sed nunc tempore nostro non micat in tenebris. Fertur autem quod honorem servat regalem.'
— Albertus Magnus, De mineralibus.
(Grimm 『Deutsche Mythologie 』第37章第2節 の引用文より)
Orphanus is the stone on the crown of the Roman Emperor, such that nothing [like it] is to be found anywhere else, for which reason it is called Orphanus("orphan"). But moreover it is wine-like in color, having a subtle wine-hue. That is to say, it is as if radiant and gleaming snow has penetrated into clear wine-red and is overcome by it. But moreover it is a pellucid stone and tradition says it used to glow in the night, but nowadays in our times it no longer twinkles in the dark. But it retains the honor of serving the kingdom.
— 拙訳
* 1 I haven't been able to consult Book of Minerals, trans. Dorothy Wyckoff (Oxford: Clarendon, 1967).]

§ Walther von der Vogelweide (12th c.): The Waise on King Philip's Head

The minnesinger Walther von der Vogelweide sung of the Waise, the orphan-stone. Walther put himself in the retinue of Philip of Swabia (1177-1208) who was elected to succeed the German throne in 1198 after his brother Henry VI died leaving an heir in minority (the future Frederick II was still an infant)*4. However, the Bishop of Cologne in charge of conducting the coronation ceremony was anti-Hohenstaufen, and refused to crown him, instead backing a rival king. Walther says it is not right that German-speaking peoples are not being ruled under unity and calls upon his listeners to:
Philippe setzen weisen ûf!
["Put the orphan-stone (the crown) on Philip!"]
—Walth. 9, 15., Reichssprüche*5
Even the pope (Innocent III) arbitrated in the favor of the rival, Otto from the rival Welfs, while excommunicating Philip at one point. But the tides of fortune turned, with the bishop and pope recognizing Philip's kingship in the end, so that Walther was able to celebrate:
schouwe wem der weise ob sîme nacke stê,
der stein ist aller fürsten leitesterne

[Now see upon whose head the orphan stone is found.
That stone is every prince's guiding star! ]
—Walth. 19, 3.,
Diu krône ist elter danne der künec Philippes sî, tr. Graeme Dunphy
I have since tracked down an English translation of this poem by Frank Betts*6, though he translates waise merely as "the gem": (p.40):
THE CROWN. The poet marvels that the ancient crown fits so closely King Philip's head and holds that it well beseems him.

THE crown is older far than King Philip. Therefore may all men see and wonder how fairly the smith made it to his head. So well they match, crown and kingly brows, that none with right may sever them; each of the twain, crown and crowned head, adorns the other, they shine both and together, proud gems on the fair young King. Gladly the Princes feast their eye.
He who doubts the Kesar's right let him gaze where the high crown rests. The gem is the bright lodestar of all Princes.
— Frank Betts tr., p.40


*1 The medieval portrait of Walther von der Vogelweide from the Manessische Handschrift, Manessa manuscript 1275 AD, (Cod. Pal. germ. 848, Universitätsbibliothek, Heidelberg)

*2 The German imperial coronation mantle (Der Krönungsmantel) from around this period is also kept in the Schatzkammer at the Hofburg in Vienna. This was formerly the cape of Roger II (d. 1154), king of Norman Sicily, later taken possession by the house of Hohenstaufen (in 1194). Henry VI's wife Constance was the daughter of Roger II, and was named successor to the Sicilian throne by her nephew. However, Sicily elected her nephew Tancred their king, until he died in 1194. Eventually he infant Frederick II was made Sicilian king with Constance acting as regent.

*5 The citation"Walth. 9, 15." is the one used in Grimm's TM. Cf. Harry Heyworth's translation page where the poem is also identified by its first line, Ich hôrte ein wazzer diezen (Lachmann-Kraus #8,28). He gives an interpretive translation as follows: "On Philip’s head, then, set the crown, / Let them be brought to heel".

*6 Betts, Frank, tr., Songs and sayings of Walther von der Vogelweide, minnesaenger, Englished by.., Sheldonian series of reprints and renderings of masterpieces in all languages, (Oxford, Published by B.H. Blackwell and sold in America by Longmans Green & Company, New York, 1917; Reprint AMS Press, 1977; 54p).

§ Duke Ernst, discoverer of the orphan-stone[?]

In the Romance of Herzog Ernst (c. 1190) *1, 2, the title character Duke Ernst loses his father (also named Ernst) at a tender age, and his mother Adelheid (Adelheit [MHG]) marries the emperor Kaiser Otto (Keiser Otte [MHG]), making Ernst the imperial stepson (Stiefsohn [G.] stiefsun [MHG]).
    But due to slandering by the Count Palatinate Heinrich (Pfalzgraf ~ [G.] phalzgrâve ~ [MHG]), he falls out of favor. (+)When the emperor was holding council at Speyer with Heinrich, Duke Ernst and his loyal Count Wetzel burst in, and slew this slanderer. Troops are raised against Ernst, and his city of Regensburg is besieged. , who decides to set sail to the Holy Land (for adventures).

(+)The ship carrying the Duke nears a large mountain called the Loadstone (berc.. der was geheizen Magnes 3895-7) in the Congealed Sea (lebermer). As its name suggests, this mountain (or rock) in the middle of sea is magnetic, and attracts ships built with iron nails. On the way there, he makes the following discovery of the precious gem:
Herzog Ernst (Hs. B), Zeile 4456-65
4456 Ernst der edele wîgant
4457 einen stein dar under sach
4458 den er ûz dem velse brach.
4459 der stein gap vil liehten glast.
4460 den brâhte sît der werde gast
4461 ûz der vil starken freise.
4462 dâ von er wart der weise
4463 durch sîn ellen genant.
4464 er ist noch hiute wol bekant.
4465 ins rîches krône man in siht.
—Bartsch ed., Herzog Ernst B
Duke Ernst (Ms. B) ll 4456-65
Ernst the noble warrior
Saw a stone thereunder,
And broke it off from the rock.
The stone gave out much gleaming light,
He has since brought it, the war-clad sojourner,
Back from the utterly stark ordeal,
Therefrom it has been named "weise"(orphan),
Owing to its sternness.
It is still today well-beknownst.
In the royal crown one can see it.
—tr. mine
    Duke Ernst is afterwards bound for the land of Arimaspî (l. 4505)*2 whose denizens have but one eye in front of their brain (sie heten niht wan ein ouge / vorne an dem hirne. ll. 4518-9) and are called in Latin "cyclopes" (ze latîne hiezens Cyclôpes l. 4521).

(+)The work exists in Latin versions. Odo of Magdeburg's Ernestus (1206 - 1233) Hystoria Hernestis ducis dated early to late 13c., ("Hezog Ernst C") Odo's Gesta Ernesti ducis de Saxonia (1206-1233) lacks the jewel episode (Thomas, Intro., p. 29).

The former is cited by Grimm in his lengthy article on the waise-stone (but not quoted). The passage he refers to is from Martene's edition*5, Liber XI p. 357 "Et pare quod careat Retio de nomine Wrisen / Nuncupat, hæc latia pupillus voce figurat" attempted translation: Due to the virtue of it being cut off, is called by the name Wrisen, which in Latin is prnounced pupillus (orphan)]). In the critical edition by Klein*6, the same passage reads Et pare quod careat recto de nomine Weisen / Nuncupat, hoc latia pupillus uoce figurat (p. 136, Liber VI, ll.328-329)


*1 Herzog Ernst B in:
Bartsch, Karl, 1832-1888, hrsg., Herzog Ernst (Wien Wilhelm Braumüller 1869.). [p.1-12 "Bruchstücke des Niederrheinischen Gedichtes aus dem XII. Jahrhundert" (Middle Franconiabn fragment ca. after 1170 = "Herzog Ernest A"); pp.13-308 Die &aauml;lteste Überarbeitung des Niederrheinischen Gedichtes (= "Herzog Ernest B") ] [copy 1 (Stanford)] | [copy 1 (Michigan U) (The MHG text can be queried at the MHDBDB site)







*2 Thomas, J. W. (John Wesley), 1916- and Dussére, Carolyn Thomas, 1942- tr., The Legend of Duke Ernst (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1979). The prose translation here reads:
Among them Duke Ernst saw one which was very bright, broke it free fro mteh rock, and brought it with him out of the frightful peril. The stone glitters with such radiance that it is called "the orphan" and is well known today, since one can see it in the imperial crown. [pp.108-9]

*3 The one-eyed giants called Arimaspoi ριμασποί are described in classical sources e.g. Herodotus.

*4 Richard J. Berleth; The Orphan Stone: The Minnesinger Dream of Reich. (Westport CT, 1990) [Contributions to the study of world history, 0885-9159 ; no. 15 ]

*5 Taken from Martene ed., Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum, Tome 3 (pub. 1717), ERNESTUS (starts p. 308)

*6 Ernestus / Odo von Magdeburg, herausgegeben und kommentiert von Thomas A.-P. Klein (Hildesheim : Weidmann, c2000) (limited preview)


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