croix ("crucifix, rood" Ch. Asper.) [OF]; kross [ON]
§ Ch. de Roland (ca. 1100)When Turpin defeats Abisme, the owner of the devil-sent enchanted shield , the Frenchmen in unison hail Archbishop Turpin as befitting his crosier (croce*1 [OF]), the symbol of ecclesiastical authority.
§ Rolandslied (ca. 1130)The German rendition by priest Konrad, the Rolandslied, interposes an earlier pre-battle scene, where Turpin (Turpin uon Raines ) presides over the "Council by the pine-tree" (pinrat*1) on how to deal with the Saracens, and he leans on his crosier (* kruchen*2 [MHG] Rolandslied, line 1252. ) The artist who drew the manuscript illustration (right) makes it unmistakably clear that it is a crosier clutched in Turpin's hand in this section. Unfortunately, during the Battle of Roncesvalles (Runzeual, Runcival ) itself where Turpin dispatches Abysse, we do not hear Frenchmen say anything about the bishop being worthy of holding the "crosse". Instead, we hear the bishop gloat: "Now you've really been gored!" ("nu hastu gar uerstochen!", RL ll.5490-).
*1Though the tree-name pin (pinboum) sounds like "pine", it is glossed as modern Germ. Fichte ="spruce, fur".
— Heidelberg manuscript fol.
(Cod. Pal. germ. 112)
*1 kruchen appears to be the Bavarian dialect for standard Middle-High German krücke, krucke and modern German krücke "crutch (or crook)".
§ Pseudo-Turpin (ca. 1150)
The Pseudo Turpin is purported to have been written, in Latin, by Archbishop Turpin himself. In this work, Turpin is considered to have been absent from the Battle of Roncesvalles. But it is worth mentioning that the cover art of the codex Calixtinus shows Turpin holding a crosier. Pope Calixtinus II, Guy de Bourgogne, was a man greatly responsible for promoting the Roncesvalles/Santiago de Compostella cult, and probably author of parts of the Liber Sancti Jacobi and even the possible author of "Pseudo-Turpin" itself (Liber IV of Liber Sancti Jacobi).
—Codex Calixtinus, Liber IV,
manuscript of the Historia Turpini,
the "Pseudo-Turpin". [local]
§ Chanson d'Aspremont (ca. 1190-1200)
This work*1 has been misidentified in the past as taking place in Spain*1a, but consensus nowadays is that it sets its stage in Italy, and that Aspremont "Bitter Mountain" is somewhere in the Calabrian Apenines, in the "heel" part of boot-shaped Italy. At the outset, young Roland is not yet knighted or equipped with sword and armor, and not tried in battle. Perhaps a brief note on the work is warranted. This chanson de geste invents the story of how Rollandin (* the diminutive suffix -in on his name indicates his youth and unknighted status.) experiences his first battle and wins his sword ⇒Durendal and other equipment. The Saracen prince Aumon and his army of 100,000 is defeated and the fortification at Aspremont "Bitter Mountain" (* ) is taken by the Franks. The routed pagan survivors are off to report their defeat to the Saracen king, Agolant, whose campaign is based in the nearby city of Rise (* Reggio di Calabria). Meanwhile Charlemagne presides over the division of spoils and the dubbing of many young fighters with newly won swords. Pope Milon then conducts mass for the French army, and after the speech they bring a Cross to him which the Frenchmen salute on bended knees:
On suggestion of Girart d'Eufrate (an irascible and harsh character), the French decide to send the severed head and arm of Aumon (the king's son) to serve as a wicked form of reply. There is no question that a great battle is in store. The French begin preparing their mounts and arms. Pope Milon tries to find a fighters who will carry his Cross.
A knight named Erengi declines to take "the Beam", indicating that a weapon will do him good but a cross would only be an encumbrance. Ysoré also declines but nominates the archbishop who is mounted on a warhorse to take up this task.
St. George comes to young Roland as he is about to face Mandaquin, and tells him "Do not fear him that he is big my son; From this day on call out 'Saint George' for luck."
Thus the Christian battle-cry of Cry "St. George" (Crie «Sains Iorge») is here suggested by an apparition of the Saint himself. The cross in Turpin's hand glows bright and keeps Saracens at bay. In the Pope's words,
*1 The Song of Aspremont, tr. Michael A. Newth 1989 / La Chanson d'Aspremont, ed.Louis Brandin 1919. *1a This is largely due to the fact that King Agolant in the Ch.d'Aspremont is modeled on Agolandus in Pseudo-Turpin.
Moreover, the placename "Pass of Aspre" (les) porz d'Aspre occurs in Chanson de Roland l.1103 (porz d'Espaigne in Oxford Digby 23). This place name also occurs in the Old French translation of Pseudo-Turpin (XXII, L, etc., see index in Walpole ed.), where earlier Agolant uses the pass to travel from Tailleborg to Pamplona, and is later the scene of the Saracen ambush of the French rearguard.
But since aspre is related to mod. Fr. aspérité, and means "rugged, steep" so it could easily apply to many such landscape.
*2 St. George (Sains Iorge 8540; Saint Iorge 8586, 9393; Sains Iorges 8526, 8547,8599,8602;Sains Yorges 8537; Saint Yorge 8814; Yorge 8517) is accompanied by St. Mercure(Sains Mercures 9394, Saint Mercurie 8587; Sains Mercuries 9394, Mercurie 8587, ) their flag-bearer and St. Domin (Dominste 8586, Domis 8599, Domins 9394).
In Karlamagnus saga IV, Chap. 66 etc., which incorporatees the Ch. d'Aspremont, the stai
*3 La Chevalerie, Leon Gautier 1890. Also in English translation by Henry Frith 1891, but the local library copy has gone missing.
Turpin holding up the Miraculous Cross (detail)
— illustr. Édouard Zier
"Pendant la Bataille -- La Croix Miraculeuse,"
in Léon Gautier, La Chevalerie, Pl. XXI
Illus. depicting the passage in Aspremont,
Bibl. Nat., fr. 25529 fol. 65v