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Morglay [weap:sword]
Arondel [bestiary:horse] [English Romance]

Beues of Hamtoun [ME]*1; Boefs, Bovoun, Boves, Boun (Anglo-Norman Boeve) [OF/AN];Bown [W]; Bevers [ON];

[Group "A" texts (mss. A E/CC S/E N C). note: Kölbing's E = Project Camelot's CC (Caius College). Kölbing's S (Duke of Sutherland)= Project Camelot's E (Brit. Library Egerton 2862)]
Morglay; Morgelai(A [= Auchinleck ms.], [vv.] 861,1249,1256,2013,3634), Morgelay (A 956,975,1013,1036,1494,1607,2316,2318,3117,3231,4011,4029,) [ME];
var. Mordelay (C 984(+2 lines inserted), 1007(+13), 1249, 1251(+2), 2187(+1), 3293, 3407)
[Group "B" texts (mss. M, L, Pynson's "old printed copy" or "O")]
Morglaye (M 1288, 1426, 4168) var. Morglay (O 1414,8)
Morglei(e), Morgley(e), Murgley (Anglo-Norman Boeve 541, 590, 632, 811, 815, 1615, 1726, 2170, 2336, 2944, 3134, 3249, 3591) [OF/AN]; Morglei? [W.]; Myrklei, Marglai [ON.].
Morglae [Ir.]
[= "glave de la mort"; cf. "claymore" (according to Brewer's). However, Langlois, Table des Noms.. equates the name with Murgleis, sword of the traitor Ganelon.]
Chiarenza (Barberino's L'Aspramonte) [It.]
[* It. "That which is luminous (light, clear)" <. chiaro ]

On the right is the purported sword of ⇒ Bevis of Hampton, hero of English Romance. In the Middle English romance, it is at one point called a "fauchoun" (Auch. ms 3634)

[Group "A" texts]
Arondel (A 589, 988, 999, 1247, 1491, 1495, 1508, 1512, 1513, 1608, 1824, 2014, 2019, 2034, 2140, 2187, 2220, 2237, 2357, 2388, 3116, 3227, 3344, 3352, 3355, 3359, 3363, 3366, 3383, 3385, 3400, 3856, 3875, 3900, 3904, 3929, 4195, 4238, 4271, 4421, 4441) [ME];
var. Arundelle (S N
1246), Arondell (C 2187) Arundel (E 3280) [ME];
[Group "B" texts]
Arondeƚƚ ("M." 792,.. 1289, 1419, 1423), var. Arundel (O 1412 "O." = Pynson's "old printed copy" of 1503) [ME];
Arundel (Anglo-Norman Boeve 629, 1688, 1692,1742, 1798,...3598) [OF/AF]; Arundel [W.]; Arondel, Arondela [ON.]. ?? [Ir.]
[* arondel, arondelle [OF] "swallow" > Mod. French hirondelle]

The famous horse of Sir Bevis.

Bevis also had occasion to conquer the horse named ⇒ Trenchefis ridden by Grander, and rode it to the castle of the giant (who turned out to be Grander's brother).

[RELINQUISHER OF SWORD] (Group "A" version)
Steward (to the King of Ermonye)

[DONOR OF SWORD] (Group "B" versions)
= Bevis' wife-to-be,
Josian (Iosian(e) [ME];Josian(e)[OF,W.]; Josvena [ON]), daughter of the heathen king Ermin (Ermyn[ME]; Hermine, -yne, Heremine, -yne, Hermin, Heremin[OF];), was the betrothed to Bevis of Hampton(Beues of Hamtoun; Boefs, Bovoun, Boves, Boun[OF];Bown [W]; Bevers [ON]). But the knight was seized and languished in prison while she was forcibly wedded to the rich king Ivar/Ivor of Mombrant (Yuor(e) (of) Mombraunt [ME]; Yvori, -iz (de) Monbra(u)nt[OF]; Inor [W]; Ivorius [ON]).
*1 An explanation of the languages may be in order. ME = Middle English. -- The ME versions of Bevis is well-known, there are some six manuscripts and several old printing.
OF = Old French / Anglo-Norman. W = Welsh. ON = Old Norse. -- Stimming edited the Anglo-Norman text, and in his Namenverzeichnis (name index), he also conveniently listed the Welsh and ON versions of the names. Welsh text is Ystorya Bown de Hamtwn (1958), Norse text in Sanders, Christopher, Bevers saga.

*2 Text of Anglo-Norman version is in Stimming, Albert, 1846-1922, Bibliotheca normannica, Vol. XII, Der anglonormannische Boeve de Haumtone (Halle : M. Niemeyer, 1879-1938.)

The Auchinleck manuscript is in the keeping of the National Library of Scotland which has put out an electronic redaction of the romances contained in it, including this one: Sir Beues of Hamtoun.

*1a Based on the edition included in Four romances of England : King Horn, Havelok the Dane, Bevis of Hampton, Athelston (1999) is the Camelot Project online edition by the by Ronald B. Herzman, Graham Drake, and Eve Salisbury team (Bevis of Hampton).
This is also based on the Auchlinleck manuscript, but is a easier read since it is annotated and uses normalized spelling, e.g., amending the name of the character Beues to Beves.

This "Beves" spelling has been in currency elsewhere. William B. Turnbull edited Sir Beves of Hamtoun: a metrical romance. Now first ed. from the Auchinleck ms. (1838). Another spelling used in library catalogs is "Beuve de Hanstone"

*1b Manuscript sigla: The Herzman team uses the following abbreviation. Auchinleck ms. text = "A"; Caius ms. = "CC", Egerton 2862 = "E" ; Cambridge University Library MS Ff. 2.38 =" C"; Royal Library, Naples MS XIII, B29 ="N"; Chetham Library, No. 8009 ="M".
Beware the abbrev. differs from Kölbing's.

§ Middle-English metrical Beves of Hamptoun

In the Auchinleck

§ Group "B" Variants of ME metrical Beves of Hamptoun

In the "B group" (Chetham ms. and Pynson's printed version) the crucial difference is that it wasn't until Josian gave it to him at his dubbing that he gained possession of the sword Morglay.

Otherwise, the story is much as in the other group. Here is a synopsis:
Bevis hunted down the boar single-handedly, "Claue his hert his sunder" (Pynson ) with his sword; he stuck the "bores hede" on a "tronchon of a spere".
In Pynson's text, the ones who then conspired to slay Bevis and take credit for the boar hunt were "fosters of that forest" (not led by the steward), and the "xii fosters" came fully armed at him. In Pynson's text is found a colorful description of Bevis' predicament when he found himself unarmed: "whan Beuys shulde hande on his swerde lay, / The skabarde he fonde his swerde was away, / for he had left his swerde thore, / where he slewe the wylde bore.". Bevis fighting with his tronchon slew three, and the others began to flee, and all of this was withnessed by Josian that she fell in love with him.

After a while, there came a messenger to Ermyne the king from Brademond, as in the "A group". But in Pynson's text it was "Bradimonde of Damas, who sware by mahounde and golias" that unless they delivered Josian to be his wife without strife, he would plunder, destroy, and burn the land. He would come for his bride on the first of May.

[* Note that May 1 is the feast day of "Beltaine", hinting at a possible Celtic element. There is a famous Irish tale about a sith from the Otherworld who would come to Tara every November 1 (i.e., Halloween) and burn the city down.]

So at Josian's suggestion, the king decides to dub Bevis knight to fight in the impending war against Brademond:

Bevis saide the kynge helpe at this nede,
For al my men thou shalt lede.
Arme the ryght and take thy shelde.
Kynge bradwonde abydeth the in the felde.
Beuys dyd on his auctonwne.
That had angered many a towne.
An haubearke Josian hym brought.
An helme she gaue hym gode and fayre.
There myght no thynge it apayre.
Than gaue hym that fayre may,
A gode swerede that hyght Morglay,
There was no better under the sonne.
Many a londe therewith was wonne,
Josian gave him sithen a stede,
The best that ever on grounde yede.
Ful wel I can his name telle.
Men called him Arundel.
— Pynson's ed. Beuve de Hanstone
(printed 1503)
EEBO, (STC 1988), image page 16 (of 75).
"Bevis," said the king, "Help us in our need,
For all my men you shall lead.
Wear properly you armour and take your shield.
Kynge Bradimonde awaits you in the field.
Bevis put on his acton [* quilted jacket worn under mail]
That had angered many a town.
Josian brought him a hauberk [*mail-coat].
And gave him a helmet that was good and fair,
Such that there was nothing to which it could compare,
Then the fair maiden gave him
A good sword called Morglay,
There was none better under the sun.
Many a land with it was won,
Josian gave him such a steed,
That was the best that ever went on ground.
Ful well I can tell his name.
Men called him Arundel.
—in plain English

Image of blackletter 1503 edition (portion)
Iosyan (Kölbing, p.46) supplied Bevis with the sword Morglay as well as armor and the horse Arundel:
And an haubarke Iosya hy brought,
742   And an helme weƚƚ I-wrought;
Than gave hym that ffeire may
744   His goo sword Morglay;
There was none better vnder the so,
Many a lon with that was won.
Iosya gave hy suche a stede,
748   The beste, that euer was at nede;
He was so swifte and so sneƚƚ,
Men calli hym Arondeƚƚ;
Ther was no hors in the world so stronge,
— Kölbing ed., Bevis of Hampton p. 46,
("M" text or Chetham ms.).
And Josian brought him a hauberk [*mail-coat]
And a well-worked helmet,
Then the fair maiden gave him
His good sword good sword Morglay
There was none better under the sun,
Many a land with that was won.
Josian gave him such a steed,
He was so swift and fast,
Men called him Arondelle
Theere was no horse in the world so strong.
—in plain English

Later editions, such as the one printed by A.M. for J. Deacon at the Angel in Guilt-spur-street without Newgate, dated 1691 (Bodleian Library, Wing (2nd ed.) / G170), employs the convention of reverting to Latin letters for proper names. [not uploaded]
*1 p.210, Kölbing, Eugen, 1846-1899 and Schmirgel, Carl ed.The romance of Sir Beues of Hamtoun, Ed. from six manuscripts and the old printed copy, with introduction, notes, and glossary, by ... (London: Pub. for the Early English Text Society by K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1885, 1886, 1894.)

The online version above has the complete set of image's from Köbing's volume, but only transcribes the "bottom text" based on "M." (Chetham ms., 15th cent. paper), with the footnoted textual variants made viewable by clicking on asterisks. (The majority of variant readings are from "O." or Pynson's printed copy). A. = Auchinleck ms. fol. 176a-201a (<1327); E. Caius College No.175, fol.131a-156b. (2nd half 14c.); S. Ms. of the Duke of Sutherland, fol.45-94, fol.96 (end 14c.); N. Royal Library of Naples, Ms. XIII B, 29, fol. (15c.); C. Cambridege, paper ms. FF. 2, 38 (old number 690), fol. 102b-133b [=(now Egerton 2862).] L. Douce Fragments, No. 19. Two leaves of the oldest printed edition. M. Chetham Library, Manchester Ms. 8009, fol. 122a-187b. Royal Library, Naples MS XIII, B29 ="N"; Chetham Library, No. 8009 ="M".

*2 (see Camelot Project: Bevis of Hampton: Introduction).

§ Anglo-Norman Boeve de Haumtone

*1 A. Stimming, ed. Der anglonormannische Boeve de Haumtone in: Bibliotheca normannica, Vol. XII (Halle : M. Niemeyer, 1879-1938.) With proper names index, commentary and notes in German.

§ Irish version


§ Bevis in historical lore

On the right is shown a huge sword measuring 5 ft 9 inches purported to be Bevis' sword is kept in the library (armory?) of Arundel Castle in Sussex.
The contention that Bevis was localized here is contrary to the suppostion that Bevis of Hampton hails from Southampton in Hampshire. The magazine issue that carried the photo also featured an article by Arthur Beckett "The Ballad of Sir Bevis of Arndel (sic.)" in defense of the Sussex pedigree for Bevis (this ballad seems to be a parady of or a take on Grubb's St. George for England collected by Percy.)
(Cf. Sussex Archaeology & Folklore: giants, David Staveley.)

sword of Bevis,
"kept at the library at Arundel Castle".
—"The Bevis Sword",
The Sussex County Magazine Vol. 3, No. 5 1929, p.348



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