§ Jehan de Waurin, Croniques et anchiennes istories de la Grant Bretaigne (c. 1470)
Waurin elaborates on Geoffrey's description of Camlan by drawing from the
Vulgate Mort Artu
or something similar.
Geoffrey's section on the Battle on the river Camel (i.e. Camlan, HRB
states that Arthur made a charge with the sword against the company where Mordred was
at and slew him, and Arthur was also mortally wounded.
Whereas Waurin's chronicle has an expanded chapter on the event
(Chap. XXXIV, "Cy parle des deux batailles que ot le roy Artus alencontre de Mordreth et la maniere de la fin deulx deux.
Arthur rides up to his company on his horse with such grand fury and speed that the
ground seemed to fuse. Then "
Et advint sy bien roy Artus quil assena tellement Mordreth de sa lance quil le perca oultre
le corps, sicque au retirer sa lance un ray de soleil feut veu tout clerement passer par my
le corps du desloyal Morderth
(And things happened to King Arthur's advantage that he
dealt Mordred such a blow that the lance pierced beyond the body, so that when he retracted
his lance a ray of sun could be seen clearly passing thorugh the body of the disloyal Mordred)",
which is a description straight from the Vulgate Mort Artu
When the false and traitorous Mordred saw that he was mortally wounded,
he struck his uncle Arthur with his sword with such great villany upon the head
that it burst out its juices[?] on the horse, but it did not strike him with instant death,
and when Mordred was done giving that blow, he grew stiff and fell dead on the ground.
As the same chapter continues, Waurin is again not satisfied with the mundane account of
Geoffrey who only says that Arthur was "borne Isle of Avalon to heal".
Waurin tells how Arthur gave Excalibur to Girflet (but neglects to mention that the knight
was commanded to throw it in the lake). Subsequently Arthur boards the barque that ships
off to Avalon:
Quant la bataille fut finee, les ix. chevalier vindrent
en la place ou gisoit le roy Artus comme demi
mort; mais quant il vey Gifflet et son nepveu Constantin,
il se leva.. et ses neuf compaignons sen alerent en un hermitage..
[où Artus] confessa a lhermite et
fist son testament, sy laissa son royaulme a Constantin, filz Cador roy de Cornubye;
..[Artus] embraca lun de ses troix chevaliers.. [et] fist morir entre ses bras.
Les deux aultre .. sendormirent, et.. Artus sesvanuy,
sicque on ne sceut oncques quil devint; mais les
aulcuns dient quil fut transportez en lisle de Avalon
pour garir ses plaies, sy comme Merlin lavoit prophetisie,
ou il est en joye et en repos, et sera jusques
au jour du jugeent.
Lhistoire du Saint Graal en parle aultrement,
dont je me passe den parler,..
Aulcuns veullent dire que quant le roy Artus
apercheut que tous ses compaignons estoient mors
exepte Gifflet, quil lappella, et sen alerent tous deux
sur le rivage de la mer, puis baisa Artus Gifflet et
lui bailla Caliburne sa bonne espee, sy sen entra en
une nef quil trouva illec toute preste, laquelle sy tost
comme le roy Artus fut dedens entres sy se esquippa
parmy la mer sy impetueusement ue Gifflet ne sceut
quelle devint en petit espace.
—William Henry ed., Jehan de Waurin, Croniques
, p. 446-8
|After the battle of Camlan..
the nine knights went to the place where King
Arthur lay half dead; when he saw Gifflet and his nephew
Constantine, [he rose up; and his nine companions went to a hermitage,
confessed himself to the hermit and made his will,
leaving his kingdom to Constantine the son of Cador of
[Arthur embracing one of the three knights and died in his arms,
the two others fell asleep] and King
Arthur vanished, so that it was never known what became
of him, but some say he was carried to the island
of Avalon to be healed of his wounds, as Merlin had
prophesied, where he remains in joy and rest, and will
be till the day of judgment. |
The story of the St. Graal speaks of this in another manner
[but I will forgo speaking about it]..
Others will have it, that when King
Arthur perceived that all his companions were dead except
Gifflet, he called him, and they went both together to
the sea shore, where Arthur kissed Gifflet and gave him
his good sword Caliburn, and then entered a ship which
he found ready there, and which, as soon as King Arthur
got into it, skimmed aslong the sea so rapidly, that in a
little while Gifflet did not know what had become of it.
—Hardy's translation provided in his notes, p.561
Note that in the extended Estoire de Merlin (Sommer ed.) , Arthur uses the sword he won from
King Rion, i.e., the sword ⇒Marmiadoise .
§ Culhwch ac Owein (est. late 11c.?) but redacted in RBH, WBR (14c.)
Culhwch sees Arthur who is a kinsman and there is a hair-cutting ritual;
consequently Culhwch will obtain a favor from Arthur, which can be almost anything he can name,
and the exceptions are his sword and other treasures.
yr arthur yna. kanny thrigyy di yma unben. ti
ageffy y kyfarws a notto dy benn ath dauawt.
hyt y sych gwynt. hyt y gwlych glaw. hyt y
treigyl heul. hyt yd amgyffret mor. hyt yd ydiw
y dayar. eithyr vy llong. am llen. achaletuwlch
uyg cledyf. arongomyant uyggwaew. ac wyneb
gwrthucher uyn taryan. acharnwenchau vygkyllell. a
— Lady Guest ed., Mabinogion
Vol. II (1849) p.204
Then said Arthur, "Since thou wilt not remain here, chieftain, thou shalt receive the boon whatsoever thy tongue may name, as far as the wind dries, and the rain moistens, and the sun revolves, and the sea encircles, and the earth extends; save only my ship; and my mantle; and Caledvwlch, my sword; and Rhongomyant, my lance; and Wynebgwrthucher, my shield; and Carnwenhau, my dagger; and Gwenhwyvar, my wife. By the truth of Heaven, thou shalt have it cheerfully, name what thou wilt." "I would that thou bless my hair."
"That shall be granted thee."
— tr. Lady Guest, p.258
The long list of tasks demanded by Ysbaddaden the giant included the hunting of two boars.
The horse Mygdwn
) is a horse which will be required for the later boar-hunt (To obtain the comb and razor/scissors that lies between the ears of Twrch Trwyth
The other boar Ysgithrwyn Pen Beidd
must be killed for its tusks to shave Ysbaddaden.
In the hunt for the boar Ysgithrwyn Pen Beidd Arthur participates, and Arthur's dog Cavall tags along.
Agwedy kymot y
gwyrda hynny uelly. y kauas arthur mygdwn
march gwedw. achynllyuan cwrs cant ewin. Gwedy
hynny ydaeth arthur hyt yn llydaw. a mabon
uab mellt gantaw. agware gwallt euryn y geissaw
deu gi glythmyr lewic. a gwedy eu kaffel yd aeth
arthur hyt yggorllewin iwerdon y geissaw gwrgi
seuri. ac odgar uab aed brenhin iwerdō gyt ac
ef. ac odyna ydeuth arthur yr gogled. ac y delis
kyledyr wyllt. ac yd aeth yskithyrwyn pennbeird.
ac ydaeth mabon mab mellt adeugi glythuyr ledewic
ynlaw. adrutwyn geneu greit mab eri. ac
ydaeth arthur ehun yr erhyl. a chauall ki arthur
yny law. ac yd esgynnwys kaw o brydein ar lamrei
kassec arthur. ac schub yr kyfuarch. Ac yna y
kymerth kaw o brydein nerth bwyellic. ac ynwych
yr trebelit y doeth ef yr baed. ac y holldes y
benn yndeu hanner. achymryt aoruc kaw yr ysgithyr.
Nyt y kwn anottayssei yspadaden ar gulhwch
aladawd y baed. namyn kauall ki arthur ehun.
— Lady Guest ed., Mabinogion
Vol. II (1849) p.238
And when Arthur had thus reconciled these chieftains, he obtained Mygdwn, Gweddw's horse, and the leash of Cwrs Cant Ewin.
And after that Arthur went into Armorica, and with him Mabon the son of Mellt, and Gware Gwallt Euryn, to seek the two dogs of Glythmyr Ledewic. And when he had got them, he went to the West of Ireland, in search of Gwrgi Severi; and Odgar the son of Aedd king of Ireland, went with him. And thence went Arthur into the North, and captured Kyledyr Wyllt; and he went after Yskithyrwyn Benbaedd. And Mabon the son of Mellt came with the two dogs of Glythmyr Ledewic in his hand, and Drudwyn, the cub of Greid the son of Eri. And Arthur went himself to the chase, leading his own dog Cavall. And Kaw, of North Britain, mounted Arthur's mare Llamrei, and was first in the attack. Then Kaw, of North Britain, wielded a mighty axe, and absolutely daring he came valiantly up to the boar, and clave his head in twain. And Kaw took away the tusk. Now the boar was not slain by the dogs that Yspaddaden had mentioned, but by Cavall, Arthur's own dog.
— tr. Lady Guest
One of the many quests that Culhwlch must fulfill is to obtain the blood of a certain witch or hag named Orddu. Arthur sends out two men and two more who fail also. All four have been taken down by the hag.
hyt nasgwypei duw
y vn o honunt ellpedwar allu mynet or lle. namyn
mal ydodet ellpedwar ar lamrei kassec arthur
yna achub aoruc arthur charnwennan y gyllell
— Lady Guest ed., Mabinogion
Vol. II (1849) p.247
And Heaven knows that not one of the four could move from the spot, until they placed them all upon Llamrei, Arthur's mare. And then Arthur rushed to the door of the cave, and at the door he struck at the witch, with Carnwennan his dagger, and clove her in twain, so that she fell in two parts. And Kaw, of North Britain, took the blood of the witch and kept it.
— tr. Lady Guest
Lady Guest, ed., tr. The Mabinogion: From the Llyfr Coch O Hergest, and Other Ancient Welsh Manuscripts, Vol. II (1849)
English only: "Kilhwch and Olwen", in the Mabinogion, tr. Charlotte Guest. "How Culhwch won Olwen" in Jeffrey Gantz tr. The Mabinogion, etc.
§ Welsh Brutiau (c. )
There is another translation of Tysilio in print by Peter Roberts*3, but the statement that "This copy is taken from the Red Book of Hergest, and is that of the Library of Jesus College, Oxford.", has been pointed out as erroneous by Griscom*4.
. Taryan a gymerth
. yn|yr|hon yd|oed
yr argl6ydes veir
Kanys ympop yg
arnei ac y coffei
ac a r6ym6yt
y gledyf goreu
yn ynys avallach. Gleif a dekcaa6d
ef yr h6nn ael6it Ron
llydan ac adas y
—Evans & Rhys edd.,
Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest, p. 189 [col. 162]
And then Arthur donned a chainmail befitting
a king. Head-gear of gold engraved with the insignia(?)
of a dragon to fit the head.
A shield taken upon his shoulder named Gwenn.
In this was the image of the Lady Mary engraved.
Because everyone whosoever was in need, called [invoked] her and
reminded himself upon her.
And [Arthur] girt Caletvulch the best sword
to be made in the Isle of Avalon.
A lance graced[?] his right hand, called Ron. Tall
it was and stout, and fit for slaughter.
— tr. mine
.. Ac yna y gwisgawt arthur lluric aoed teilwng
y vrenhyn. ac am yben helmp
. atharean aelwit
adelw yr arglwides [veir] yndi. ay henw
yndi. a honno a
yn [ ? ] govyt
Ac ar y glvn y rodet kledyf a elwit caletuwlch
agoreu dedyf oed [o] ynys brydein. ac yn ynys avallach y gwnaethessit. ac yny
law yrodet gleif a elwit ron gymhyniect
Brut y Brenhinedd (Cotton Cleopatra Version), p.159 (Fol. 79)
And then Arthur put on a corslet
that was fit for a king, and on his head a golden helm with the image of a dragon of gold on it;
and a shield that was called Gwenn with the image of the
Lady Mary on it and her name written on it,
and this Arthur called to mind when he went into
distress [and] trouble. And by his side he put a sword called
Caletvulch, and it was the best sword of the Isle of Britain,
and it had been made in the Isle of Avalon.
And in his hand he put a lance which was called Ron Gymhynieit.
There are several "Bruts" in the Red Book of Hergest differing from Tysilio,
including one designated the "Geoffrey's Brut" in Welsh (Ystoria Brenhined y Brytanyeit)*5.
I hope I got these textual accounts correct, but I am admittedly short on researching this.
What follows is translation by Rev. Robert Jones, Brut Tysilio,
for the "magical possessions" passage:
And then Arthyr put on a
breast-plate worthy of a King; and on his head was a golden helmet with
the likeness of a dragon of fire on it, and another image called prydwenn
[blessed form], and on its inner side was carved the likeness of Mary. And
this Arthyr bore with him when he went into battle-peril. And he took a
sword, called kaledvwlch, for it was the best in all ynis Brydain. It was made in ynys afallach.
And in his hand he took the spear caled Rongymyniad.
And when all were harnessed, with the Arch-Bishop's blessing, (f. 107 rec.)
fiercely they fell upon the enemy, and killed them until night. And towards
night the ssaesson made for the top of a high hill, thinking they could take
shelter there. And when the next day came, Arthyr took the mountain
from them; in spite of this they fought fiercely. And then in a rage, Arthyr
drew his sword kaledvwlch, and remembering the name of Mair [Mary],
manfully rushed upon his enemies* and whoever met him he killed with a
single stroke; nor did Arthyr rest till he had slain four hundred and seventy
of the ssaesson.
— Jones tr. of the Welsh "Brut Tysilio"
Oxford U., Jesus College ms. No.LXI., fol.106v-107r
in Griscom ed. The chronicle of the kings of Britain pp.438-9
Welsh text printed in the large compilation,
The Myvyrian archaiology of Wales (1801, repr. 1870).
Apparently entitled Brut Gruffudd ab Arthur i.e. "The Brut of Geoffrey [of Monmouth] son of Arthur" there, rather than (Brut Tysilio), and
Charlotte Guest quotes from it in her notes to Kilhwch and Olwen
An English translation from the Welsh Brut Tysilio, by Robert Ellis Jones,
is found in the Griscom ed. of Historia regum Britanniæ (op. cit.)
Roberts, Peter, tr.
The chronicle of the kings of Britain / translated from the Welsh copy attributed to Tysilio; (London : Printed for E. Williams, 1811)
The chronicle declares the author(or translator) to be Walter
(Geoffrey's source): "I, Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford, translated this book from the Welsh into Latin, and have agin translated it from the Latin into Welsh."
It is only a supposition that St. Tysilio wrote the first-draft Welsh text that pseudo-Walter says he used. cf. Gautier Mapp.
Tysilio is in "MS. LXI of Jesus College", not in Hergest (which is also in the Jesus College collection.)
Rhys, John, Sir, 1840-1915, Evans, J. Gwenogvryn, ed.,
The text of the Bruts from the Red book of Hergest (Oxford, J.G. Evans )
[books.google] Also see transcription of
Llyfr Coch Hergest, fol. 41r @ Cardiff Univ.
§ prose Middle English Merlin (c. 1450)
Since it is described as a "slavishly faithful" English translation of the French Vulgate Estoire de Merlin tradition, it does not belong with the above group of works (the Geoffrey of Monmouth / chronicles group). It uses both "Escaliboure" and "Calibourne" forms to translate the French form "Escalibor."