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Danish Ballads

Adelring [weapon:sword] [Danish ballad]

[< adel "noble"(?); cf. OE æðling atheling.]

Name of a sword that appears in at least five Danish heroic ballads:

(1) Sword of Diderik ;
Adelring (tr. Borrow, tr. Prior) [E.]; Adel-ryng (DgF 9A) *1, Addell-ring (DgF 9B), Aadellring (DgF 9C), Adel-ring (DgF 9D), Adell-ring (DgF 9E), Adelring (DgF 9G) [Dan.];
found by chance when King Diderik [≈ Dietrich von Bern / Wolfdietrich] aided a lion in combat against a dragon; the sword was in a cave that was the dragon's den; it formerly belonged to the famed hero Sigfred; (DgF 9)
(2) Sword of Sivord Snarensvend ;
Adelring (tr. Borrow, tr. Prior, tr. Smith-Dampier) [E.];
Aadellring, Adellring (DgF 3A) Adel-ring (DgF 3B) Adell-rinng, Adellring (DgF 3C) ædle Ring, Adelring (DgF 3D) [Dan.]
which his "sworn brother" [brother-in-law] Sir Nielus / Hero Hagen borrows, only to kill him with; The sword contains a bloody tear in the hilt, and the wielder must take heed not to let this liquid drip onto his finger, lest he should die. (DgF 3);

(3) Sword given to Svendal by his mother who speaks from the grave (DgF 70C D E). Adelring (DgF 70C, str.14)(DgF 70D, str.13)(DgF 70E, str.15), among the treasures his dead mother in the grave conferred onto him.

(4) Sword used by Memering Aaddellring (DgF 13A, str.7), Aadellring (   "   , str.8, str.23, str.31) Addellring (   "   , str.24), Aadellrinng (   "   , str.25), Saaderinng (   "   , str.26)
Sword coveted by the slanderer Raffeuengaard, but which the accused lady Guner (wife of Duke Hendrick) gave to Memering who championed her. (DgF 13 A). Raffeuengaard possed a sword called Swdde-wynndtt (   "   , str.27), Swd-wynnd (   "   , str.29),

(5) Sword of Gralver the dragon-slayer. (Gralver kongesøn, DgF 29) Edelle-rinng (DgF 29A, str.8) [critical text = Aa = Anna Urpos Hdskr. Nr. 103.]) var. Edell-ring (Ab = Det større stokholmske Hdskr. Nr. 10.) var. Adelle-ring (Ac = Rentzels Hdskr. Nr. 12.).

§ The sword and the fiery breath
One can argue for a connection between this sword and «Dietrich's fiery breath», which is not only a deadly mode of attack but can also liberate him from fetters and chains.
In the Danish ballad of Didrik and the lion, Didrik winds up in a situation of requiring an release from bondage (if not literally, at least in phraseology) since he is captured by the dragon and then "sealed" in "the mountain" (that is, a cavernous lair inside a mountain) *2.
Then, in Vedel's version of this "Didrik and the Lion" (DgF9G) ballad, once Didrik starts brandishiing the sword Adelring in the dragon's lair, it causes the place to be set ablaze. Both Borrow and Prior in their translations rationalizes this as the sword striking sparks on the rocks made of flint, even though the language of the original text hardly states this).
Another intriguing passage suggesting a connection to the sword and Dietrich's lock-loosing fire-breath is in the variant of the Svejdal ballad (DgF70E), where the sword Adelring is referred to as a key that can open every lock. Moreover, the Danish word here for "key" is Nøkle.
Perhaps this suggests an alternate etymology for Dietrich's sword Nagelring (of which Adelring is considered a corruption). Conventional the sword name is explained by way of nagel [OHG], nagl meaning "nail" or "fingernail/toenail".

*1 DgF stands for Danske gamle Folkviser (Denmark's ancient folk-ballads), and is a compendium of Danish ballads in all of their redactions compiled by Svend Grundtvig. This is tha cataloguing system widely used.
Thus "DgF 9" means "ballad #9". While "DgF 70C" indicates that only variant C of the ballad #70 is applicable (i.e., has the name "Adelring" occuring in the strophes).

*2 Compare this to the German hürnen Seyfrid, where Kriemhilt is abuducted by the dragon and held imprisoned in "the Rock", with the giant Kuperan guards the key. It is sufficient from this description alone to realize that hürnen Seyfrid is to be identified with "King Sigfred" whose sword Adelring was left for Didrik to find in the dragon's cave. (Even though Seyfrid does not perish in the cave according to the German tale).

§ Adelring (1)Kong Diderik og Løven (DgF #9, vol. 1, pp.129-)*1,2,3,4,5

The ballad of King Diderik and the lion can be read in Borrow's*1 or Prior's*2 translation. The source Danish text can also be consulted online *3.

King Diderik (* the Danish form of Dietrich von Bern), encounters a lion in distress and under attack by a dragon. He helps the maned beast on account of the lion being blazoned on his shield. The hero's own sword breaks, and he is imperiled, but luckily finds a fine sword in the very mountainous den where he is fighting. The sword is called Adelring and was formerly owned by King Sigfred who perished here.

In Das Lied vom hürnen Seyfrid survives the tradition that Siegfried once rescued a maiden from a cave-dwelling dragon. Seyfrid also obtains a sword in the rocks where the dragon lives.

The Danish ballad also closely parallels the Middle High German hero-epic Wolfdietrich, in which the hero Wolfdietich or Wolf hêr Dieterîch (* not Dietrich of Bern himself, but rather his ancestor) likewise assists a lion being attacked by a dragon, on account of his wearing the lion emblem on the shield. Wolfdietrich is captured by the dragon, and his still-living body is thrown to the dragon whelps for them to play with and feed on, but finds the sword Rose left by his befriended and now fallen king Ortnit.

In the Danish ballad, Didrik takes the place of Wolfdietrich and Sigfred the place of King Ortnit.

variant sword-name owner city rival
[Borrow's tr.]: Adelring
(13th st.)
Diderik Bern Sigfred
[Prior's tr.]: Adelring
(st. 11)
Diderick Bern Sigfred
[9A]: Adel-ryng (st.9) Dhyryk Berned Syfred;
[9B]: Addell-ring (st.7) Tyderich, Thiderich, Thyderich Bern Seifre;
[9C]: Aadellring (st.9) Tiderick, Diderick, Tidderick Bernn Sieffred;
[9D]: Adel-ring (st.9) Diderich, Thiderich Bern Siuffuit;
[9E]: Adell-ring (st.9) Dederiick, Thideriick, Dyderiick, Thideriig -- Siigefredtt;
[9G]: Adelring (st.12) Tiderich Bern Sigfred;

*1 Borrow's English translation is "King Diderik and the Lion's Fight with the Dragon", in Works, vol. 7, pp. 14-19.

*2 Prior, R. C. Alexander, Ancient Danish Ballads, No. 10 "King Diderick and the Dragon" (1860). [LOC]

*3 Both Borrow and Prior's original is DgF 9G, or Vedel's I, Nr. 13, entitled "Løvens og Kong Tiderichs Kamp" available at Kalliope.

*4 Commentary is also found in Jamieson, Robert, 1780?-1844, Weber, Henry William, 1783-1818, Scott, Walter, Sir, 1771-1832. ed. Illustrations of northern antiquities, pp 225-30 (Edinburgh: J. Ballantyne and co., for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London 1814) as "The battle of King Tidrich and the lion with the linden-worm"

*5 Norway's folk singer and kantele player Sinikka Langeland performs a few phrases of "Kong Diderik og Løven" in her album Strengen var af røde guld "the strings are made of red-gold" (Grappa 1996)

* Church door from Valþjófsstaðir in Iceland dated 1180-90 depicts a knight conquering a dragon and freeing a dragon. Its runic inscription designate him as "King of the Greeks". (Bugge, The Home of the Edic Poems: With Especial Reference to the Helgi-lays, p.70

§ Adelring (2)Sivard og Brynild (DgF #3, vol. 1, pp.13-)

This ballad*1,2,3,4, is a retelling of Brynhild's vengence in the Nibelungenlied / Volsunga saga cycle, although the names of some characters are transposed or altered.

Sivard (Sivord) Snarensvend "quick-youngster" corresponds to Siegfried of Nibelungenlied and Sigurðr of the eddas and sagas (Note in Reginsmál, Sigurðr is referred to as seggr inn snarráði "keen man").

We are told that Sivord Snarensvend, riding on a colt (fole [Dan.] "foal"), wins Brynhild from the "Hill of Glass" (Glarbjærget [Dan.] "glassy hideaway")*5.

Sivord has relinquished the maiden to be married to Nielus/Haagen who is his "weapon-brother" (Dan. staldbroder, "companion," lit. "stable-brother"), while Sivord himself has wedded Senild. When the two queens bathe and wash themselves, Signild brags about the gold ring she received from Sivord, and the truth comes out that it was really Sivord who had won Brynhild as bride but that she was given over to Sir Nielus / Hero Hagen*6.

As in the saga, the scorned wife, Brynhild, instigates her husband (Sir Nielus / Hero Hagen) to kill the hero. The conspirator secures the loan of the sword, but Sivord warns:
24. Min gode Sverd, heder Adelring,
Oc den kandst du vel faae:
Du voete dig for de blodige Taare,
Vnder Hioltet monne staae.
25. Du voete dig for de blodige Taare;
Oc de ere alle røde:
Rinder de ned ad Fingre din,
Da bliffver [du] slagen til døde."
—DgF 3D
[24.] ' My trusty faulchion Adelring
To thee I 'll freely yield,
But oh ! beware thee of the tears
Beneath the hilt conceal'd.
[25.]' Beware thee of those frightful tears,
They are all bloody red ;
If down thy fingers they should run,
Thou wert that moment dead.',
—Borrow tr.
The traitor quickly smites off Sivord's head, and wraps the head in his cloak to show his wife. By then the traitor (Nielus/Hagen) experiences deep remorse for slaying his comrade, and opts to cut down his instigating wife, then turns the sword on himself.

variant sword-name owner wife rival rival's wife
[Borrow's tr.]: Adelring (19th, 23rd, 24th st.) Sivard Snareswayne Signelil Sir Nielus Brynild
[Prior's tr.]: Adelring (st. 20) Siward the Hasty Sinild Hero Hogen Brynild, Brynelille
[Smith-Dampier's tr.]: Adelring (st. 17) Sivord Snarensvend Signild Haagen Brynhild
[3A]: Aadellring(st. 20), Adellring (st. 21) Syffuert Snarend-suend Sieneld Hellitt Hagenn, Helleett Haffue Bryneld
[3B]: Adel-ring (st. 9) Siuord Snaren-suend -- Helled Haagen Brynelill
[3C]: Adell-rinng(st. 7), Adellring (st. 10) Siuord Snarenn-suendt -- her Nielus Brønild
[3D]: ædle Ring (st. 19), Adelring (st. 24) Sivard Snaren Svend Signild Her Nielus Brynild

*1 Borrow's English translation is "The Tale of Brynild", in Works, vol. 7, pp. 69-74. [LOC]
Borrow's original is a redaction of DgF 3D (= version in Tragica (1657) by the noblewoman Mette Gjøe) as reprinted in ANR = Abrahamsomn, Nyerup, rahbek ed. Udvalgte danske Viser fra Middelalderen, No. 17 (1812).

*2 Prior, R. C. Alexander, Ancient Danish Ballads, No. 3 "Siward and Brynild" (1860). Prior's source was DgF 3A (=Karen Brahe's ms., #34).

*3 There is also the translation by Smith-Dampier "Sivord and Brynhild" [LOC] (also from DgF 3A) from the e-book online of Sigurd the Dragon-Slayer: A Faröese Ballad-Cycle (1934), whose Part II consists of "Danish ballads of Sigurd".

*4 Since online versions are wanting, the Danish texts from DgF will be uploaded at some time: Sivord og Brynhild"

*5 In the Old Icelandic telling, Brynhild was freed from Hindarfjall "hind mountain", and perhaps this got confounded with Glasisvellir, to form Glarbjærget. The Danish word bjæ[et] "[the] hideaway" is distinct from bjerg[et] "[the] mountain," even though Borrow, Smith-Dampier translates this as "Hill of Glass." Prior makes this "tower of glass".

*6 This episode is dealt with in detail in both the Nibelungenlied and the Volsunga saga. In the saga version, Sigurðr is fed an ale of forgetfulness and agrees to assume the likeness of Gunnar in order to win Brynhildr in his friend's stead; Sigurðr also wrests the arm-ring Andvaranautr . When the two queens bathe, it is presumably this arm-ring that is spotted on Guðrun's arm. And these are the details that the ballad does not explicitly go into: that Brynhild recognized the ring as formerly belonging to her, and through this, she deduces the deceit (switching of suitors) that occured.

§ Adelring (3)Ungen Svejdal (DgF 70) *1

Sven Grundtvig and Sophus Bugge*1 were of the opinion that the Eddaic poem Svipdagsmál and this ballad tells the same story.

In the Danish Ungen Svejdal ballad, Young Svejdal*2, *3, *4, *5, *6 visits his mother in the grave asking for her advise and counsel before he sets out overseas in a quest to woo a maid whom he has never seen, but whom he has fallen in love, bound by the spell that his step-mother has cast.

In order to help him in his journey, the dead mother endows Svejdal with magical gifts: a horse that can travel across the sea as well as land, a cloth that produces whatever food that pleases you, a horn that is ever filled with drink, and a magical sword hardened in dragon-blood which burns like bonfire in the "Mirky Shaw" (Darkwoods)*7. In some variants, the youth also receives a snekke (pron. "snegge", a type of ship).

13.     Saa giver jeg dig en Gangere graa,
og den skal være dig tro:
han kan saa vel paa Vandet gaa,
som paa den sorte Jord.

14.     Saa giver jeg dig et Sværd af Guld,
at hænge ved din Side:
og hvor du farer i Verden hen,
skal du i Freden ride.

15.     Saa giver jeg dig en Nøgel,
den kaldes Adelring:
og hvilken Laas du sætter den for,
der skal du slippe ind.

16.     Saa vil ieg give dig en Dug,
den kaldes Ageruld:
og hvilken Mad du ønsker dig,
skal staa for dig paa Bord."

13 "I'll give thee first a stout grey horse,
"And faithful he'll be found;
"He tramps as well on ocean wave
"As on the solid ground.

14 "I'll give thee too a sword of gold
"Gird it upon thy side,
"And, where thou journeyest in the world
"In safety thou shall ride.

15 "I'll give thee too a golden key,
"Its name is Adelring,
"Use but that key, and every lock
"Shall open to thee spring.

16 "I'll give thee too a table-cloth
"Spun of the moorgrass wool;
"Desire whatever meat thou wilt,
"With that it shall be full."
— tr. Prior

*1 See my own English rendering of Bugge's Excursus to the Svipdagsmál [LOC].

*2 The Danish variant texts are in DgF 70 Ungen Svejdal" [LOC]

*3 My translation of the complete variant A (here, Sveidal's sword not given a name) and an excerpted one of variant C (Svendal's sword is Adelring) can be found in the aforementioned Bugge excursus.

*4 Borrow's translation Young Swaigder, or the Force of Runes" (Works, vol. 7, pp.163-9) [LOC] is based on a redaction of variant Bc.

*5 Prior, R. C. Alexander, Ancient Danish Ballads, No. 84 (vol 2 pp.328-327) "Young Swennendal" (1860) [LOC]. Prior's source was variant E.

*6 Smith-Dampier's translation "Young Svejdal" [LOC] from Olrik's text, which is a "reconstructed" composite based on available variants. (Smith-Dampier, E.M., A Book of Danish Ballads (Princeton Univ. Press 1939) / Olrik, Axel and Ida Falbe-Hansen, Danske Folkeviser i Udvalg. Copenhagen: Glydendal 1899)

text variant owner horse over land & sea cloth of plenty
(filled with drink)
[My trans.]:
(of A)
Sveidal "a foal"
(that "goes as well over salty fjord / As over the green land.")
"cloth.. you can spread all 'round"
("When a meal is what you wish for, It shall assuage your complaint[?]".)
("..clasped with gold. When a drink is what you wish for, / Then it shall stay replete")
"The Sword.. hardened in dragon-blood"
("Whereever you ride through the Mirky Shaw / It then burns like bonfire."). (st. 15)
[Borrow's tr.]:
(of Bc)
Swaigder "noble horse"
(that "will run upon the sea / As on the verdant mead.")
"napkin.. of Ager wool entire"
("..Before thee on the board shall stand, What meat thou shalt desire".)
("All the drink thou wishest for, / From the golden horn shall stream.")
"a sword, ..hardened in Dragon's blood"
("..It will glitter like a beam When thou ridest through the wood"). (15th st.)
[My partial trans.]:
(of C)
Svendal "steed"
(such that "ride him both day and night, / He will hardly ever be discouraged. ")
("You will never come to Strife, / [Where] you shall [not] win sure Victory"). (st. 14)
[Prior's tr.]:
(of E)
Swennendal "a stout grey horse"
(that "..tramps as well on ocean wave / As on the solid ground.")
"table-cloth..Spun of the moorgrass wool;"
("Desire whatever meat thou wilt,/ With that it shall be full.")
Adelring (st. 15)
(".. a sword of gold"; "a golden key, Its name is Adelring, .. use but that key, and every lock / Shall open to thee spring").
[Smith-Dampier's tr.]: Svejdal "a palfrey.."
("can bear thee as well o'er the billows As over the lea so green.")
"a shining sword .. tempered in dragon's blood.."
("'Twill glow like a burning bale-fire / When thou ridest through darksome wood.")
[70A]: Sueidaall, Suiedall, Suedall enn fuolle "the foal" dugenn "the cloth"
("alt om du kandt thend bredde")
dyres-hornn.. spenntt med guld "beast-horn.. clasped with gold" suerditt er harditt y drage-blod
"the sword etc." (st. 15)
[70B]: Sueydall enn fuolenn "the foal" dugenn.. aff ageruldt "the cloth of cottongrass-wool"
dørins-huorne,.. belagd medt guldt: "beast-horn overlaid with gold" suerdett, er herdt y drage-blodt
"the sword etc." (st. 16)
(= Syv, Nr. 24)
Svegder folen god "the good foal" dugen.. hand er af Ageruld: "cloth of cottongrass-wool" dyvre-horen.. belagde med guld "beast-horn . .overlaid with gold" sværdet,.. er hærdet i drageblod
"the sword etc." (st. 15)
Suendall, Suendal den hest.. rid du hanem baade dag och nat, hand vorder ret aldrig moed "ride him both day and night, / He will hardly ever be discouraged."
Adelring (st. 14)
("du komer ret aldrig i den strid, / du skall io seiren vinde.") "You will never come to Strife, / [Where] you shall [not] win sure Victory".
Svedall, ganger, ..hand ber saa vell offuer salte fyffver, som ved dend grønne lide." "courser.. / He will carry as well over salt craftily[?] as he would over the green"
[* sadell "saddle" and støffle støvle "boot" are other gifts.]
Adelring (st. 13)
("du komer aldrig i dend strid, /du skalt io seyer vinde.")
Svennendal, ganger, ..hand ber saa vell offuer salte fyffver, som ved dend grønne lide." ""a stout grey horse" (that "..tramps as well on ocean wave / As on the solid ground." Ageruld
[* sadell "saddle" and støffle støvle "boot" are other gifts.]
Adelring (st. 15)
("Saa giver jeg dig en Nøgel, /den kaldes Adelring: /og hvilken Laas du sætter den for, der skal du slippe ind") "I will give you a key / that is called Adlering/ whatever lock you are faced with / it shall let you in".

§ Adelring (4)Ravengaard and Memering (DgF 13A)

[sword of the hero]
Aaddellring (Str. 7) Aadellring (Str. 8, 23, 31) Addellring (Str. 24) Aadellrinng (Str. 25) [Dan.]; Adelring (Christophersen tr.) [E.]
The sword which Raffuengaard (Ravengaard) sought from the queen, approaching her in King Hendrick's absence, but was denied. Later after Ravengaard accused the queen of infidelity with the archbishop, she must find a champion to clear her name, and entrusts the sword to Memering who defeats Ravengaard. *1

[sword of the enemy, Raffuengaard(Ravengard)] Saaderinng (Str. 26, v.2), Swdde-wynndtt (Str. 26, v.4), Swd-wynnd (Str. 29) [Dan.]; Sudwynd (Christophersen tr.) [E.]
Sword used by the slanderer Ravengaard in a duel against Memering.

The duel was fought within a ring (krindsenn) inscribed in the dirt. They must take turns delivering a sword blow to the opponent.
Ravengaard, when asked, swears to his opponent he knows nothing of the sword Sudwynd, which is a lie. Memering also swears that he only knows the hilt of Adelring above ground, which was true.
The opponents initially fight with their spare swords, with Ravengaard striking first, breaking Memering's sword in two. The duke gloats at the queen. Memering, (apparently taking up a fresh second sword), counterstrikes and break's Ravengaard's sword, and the queen repartees back at the duke. At this point Ravengaard begs for a respite to tighten his shoe, using the opportunity to grab Sudwynd. It propmpts Memering to declare that the villain has forsworn himself. Ravengaard goes on to break Memering's (second spare) sword. So Memering now reciprocates by demanding a shoe-tightening recess, and using the opportuninty to draw out Adelring (which must have been buried to the hilt in the ground nearby). Ravengaard accuses him of perjury, but Memering rebuts. Memering's first stroke breaks Ravengaard's sword (Sudwynd) in two, and his next stroke cuts Ravengaard's throat (or neck) in two.

It should be noted that only version A of the ballad features these named swords. And in other version, the slanderer (with varying names all beginning with the letter "R") makes romantic advances on the queen rather than to seek the gift of the good sword. The other versions are also not so well fleshed out, and lacks the details of combat, or not even feature a duel.

*1 Gruntvig ed., Danmarks gamle Folkeviser i, pp. 205-6. DGF 13A.

*2 Prior's verse translation of version A is inexact, and essentialy reorganizes quatrains into couplets so that the strophe numbers are approximately doubled. ADB, Vol. 1 ([books.google]) No. 14.

*3 Paul Christophersen, The Ballad of Sir Aldingar: Its Origins and Analogies, p.178-87 gives a close literal translation.

§ Adelring (5)Gralver kongesøn (DgF 29)

Sword of Gralver the dragon-slayer. (Gralver kongesøn[?] DgF 29).
[Gralver < gráulfr "grey wolf".]*1

German scholar Lotte Silcher*2 noted that the hero Gralver also owns a sword by this name. The ballad where it occurs is Gralver kongesøn (* DgF 29 untranslated into English).

This is not so surprising in the light of Bugge's note that Gralver ("Gray Wolf") is a transformation of Wolfdietrich in a Low German poem.*3.

Below is an attempt to summarize the story, although I cannot vouch for strict accuracy.

(General Abstract)*4, *5 Gralver the prince rides off to visit Signelil's stall. He encounters a lindworm, which he kills after three days in combat. He goes to Signelil, who promises him gold and love (here ends subtype E). He asks her to convert to Christianity, but she refuses. He reveals that he is betrothed to a Christian maid in the Eastern Land (Orient): (subtype D ends here with his departure and praise of his faithfulness); The ballad continues in subtype A, B and G: she asks him to ride there and find his faith. He says goodbye and go away (G ends here). He meets a giant, who challenges him to fight. They fight three days, and the giant is defeated and killed. In A, he then rides to a rose garden, meets a maiden whom he courts and she becomes his betrothed. In B he rides back to Signelil, who is now willing to convert to Christians. In F, the lindworm gives Gralver the keys to the mountain, where he saves the damsel S&oring;lverlad, by killing the worm, and wins the horde of gold. The maid S&oring;lverlad wants to marry Gralver, but he says he is spoken for, with a finacee waiting in the Eastern king's realm, so instead, he offers to wed his brother Benedict to her.*4

(Recension A)
Graffuell the king's scion (prince) orders his horse saddled, saying "I will ride to Syllessborrig to visit the proud Sinild (or Sinid-lille) under her realm[?].
*1 Grutvig ed, Danmarks gamle folkeviser I, pp.374-83 [books.google]. This ballad remains untranslated to my knowledge.

*2 Silcher, Lotte (1902- ), Die Dänischen Balladen aus dem Kreis der Dietrichsage(Univ. of Tübingen, Rostock: Adler Erben GmbH 1929), p.51:
"Dietrich findet ein gutes Schwert in der Höhle, „man kalder det Adelring“. Hier hat der Dichter, dem Balladengebrauch folgend, der es liebt, den Waffen besondere Namen beizu- legen, zu einem in der Viserdicthung mehrfach belegten Schwertnamen gegriffen: in DgF. 3 gehört es Sivard, der nur mit diesem Schwert erschlagen werden kann; als er- regendes Moment wirkt es in DgF.13, wo „Fru Guner“ es in Verwahrung hat und Raadengaard nach ihm verlangt; endlich finden wir es in den Händen von Gralver, dem Drachentöter (DgF. 28[sic.]). [* The ballad is question is not DgF 28 (=Ungen Ranild, translated by Prior, Anc. Dan. Ballads No.28 and by Borrow, Works Vol. 8 pp.90-95) but DgF 29]

*3 Sophus Bugge, Home of the Eddic Lays, Ch. 14: "Nor was the Wolfdietrich story without influence on the form of the Helgi story preserved in the Second Lay. In II, I, Helgi calls himself 'the grey wolf,' just as Wolf-Theodoric in the Danish ballad, which is a transformation of a Low-German poem, is called Gralver, i.e. gráulfr, and Granuoll, i.e. grán ulf; and as Wolfdietrich, B 369, designates himself as 'the wolf.'"

*4 Copenhagen Universtiy, INSS, DUDS site has an overview of: Gralver

*5 Walter Morris Hart, Ballad and epic: a study in the development of the narrative art (Harvard University, 1907) [Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature XI] [books.google]

*6 See under Dan. dictionaries

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